The New Humanitarian Annual Report 2021

  1. Home
  2. Africa
  3. East Africa
  4. Kenya

Push to meet 2013 male circumcision targets

Circumcision in progress
Circumcision in progress in Uganda (Edward Echwalu/IRIN)

With just over one year left to achieve its target of having some 1.1 million men circumcised as part of HIV-prevention efforts, Kenyan male circumcision programmes are ramping up efforts to bring more men into clinics, compensating them for their time and encouraging them to bring friends in for the procedure.

Some medical male circumcision programmes are piloting the use of vouchers, giving men coupons worth 100 Kenya shillings (about US$1.17) when they complete the procedure; these vouchers are redeemable for cash once the man returns for a follow-up visit. The men are encouraged to return with a friend or relative also wishing to be circumcised.

"Compensation for time lost to such persons has seen many of them turn up in large numbers to get circumcised," Walter Obiero, the clinical manager at the Nyanza Reproductive Health Society, told IRIN/ PlusNews.

Loss of income is a reason frequently cited by men rejecting circumcision, many of whom wrongly believe they will be unable to work during the entire six-week healing period. In fact, men can usually return to work within three or four days.

Meeting targets

Most efforts to increase voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) have been focused in the western province of Nyanza, which is dominated by the traditionally non-circumcising Luo community. The programme has also been rolled out in the capital, Nairobi, and the northwestern Turkana region, where circumcision levels are low.

"We have focused on other regions as well so that we can have as many people as possible getting medically circumcised," Obiero said.

Kenya has carried out an estimated 477,000 circumcisions since the programme started in 2008, according to the government. "This figure does not include those in the private sector where voluntary medical male circumcision is also done," said Obiero.

Male circumcision has been scientifically proven to reduce a man's risk of contracting HIV through vaginal intercourse by as much as 60 percent. Follow-up studies have found that the effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention is maintained for several years.

In 2011, UNAIDS and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) launched a five-year plan to have more than 20 million men in 14 eastern and southern African countries undergo medical male circumcision by 2015.

More on male circumcision
 TANZANIA: Male circumcision campaign targets 2.8 million
 ZIMBABWE: Rate of male circumcision speeds up
 UGANDA: Supply the main challenge in male circumcision
 AFRICA: Political leadership key to male circumcision success

"To ensure that we achieve our target, the government will increase sensitization and mobilization efforts to ensure we can have more people embrace male circumcision as an HIV prevention method," Athanasius Ochieng, VMMC programme manager at the National AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections Control Programme (NASCOP), told IRIN/PlusNews.

The role of women will also need to be increased. "It will also be critical to engage women in mobilization of their partners and to ensure that they play a bigger role in VMMC than is done currently," Mark Okundi, a communication specialist with US-funded AIDS Population and Health Integrated Assistance, said.

Casting a wider net

The government is considering integrating male circumcision, currently offered as part of its HIV prevention package, into outpatient services in public hospitals, as well as starting infant male circumcision, which studies have found to be cost-effective. A recent study carried out among 1,200 infants in Nyanza Province concluded that infant male circumcision was safe, and an earlier study concluded that it was acceptable to most parents.

"We are carrying out studies on infant male circumcision, and once we have this, then we will find out the possibility of rolling out nationally," Ochieng said.

Currently, the programme focuses on males aged 15 and above, though private hospitals do carry out the procedure on infants at parents' request.

The national male circumcision programme holds an annual Rapid Results Initiative (RRI) every November and December, which boosts circumcision numbers significantly through mobile clinics and ramped up publicity. The RRI suffered a setback in 2011, however, meeting just over half the target of 70,000 men due to heavy rains that made many roads in Nyanza impassable.


This article was produced by IRIN News while it was part of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Please send queries on copyright or liability to the UN. For more information:

Share this article
Join the discussion

Right now, we’re working with contributors on the ground in Ukraine and in neighbouring countries to tell the stories of people enduring and responding to a rapidly evolving humanitarian crisis.

We’re documenting the threats to humanitarian response in the country and providing a platform for those bearing the brunt of the invasion. Our goal is to bring you the truth at a time when disinformation is rampant. 

But while much of the world’s focus may be on Ukraine, we are continuing our reporting on myriad other humanitarian disasters – from Haiti to the Sahel to Afghanistan to Myanmar. We’ve been covering humanitarian crises for more than 25 years, and our journalism has always been free, accessible for all, and – most importantly – balanced. 

You can support our journalism from just $5 a month, and every contribution will go towards our mission. 

Support The New Humanitarian today.

Become a member of The New Humanitarian

Support our journalism and become more involved in our community. Help us deliver informative, accessible, independent journalism that you can trust and provides accountability to the millions of people affected by crises worldwide.