1. Home
  2. Africa
  3. East Africa
  4. Sudan

Arm militia to contain LRA in Western Equatoria, say leaders

An Arrow Boy showing off his "Fabrication", a self built rifle for hunting and protection
An Arrow Boy showing off his "Fabrication", a self built rifle for hunting and protection (Marc Hofer/IRIN)

Southern Sudan should arm the local Arrow Boys militia to protect civilians in Western Equatoria State (WES) against possible attacks by remnant Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) fighters during January’s referendum on secession, say local leaders.

“We’ve told the government, ‘Let [the Arrow Boys] be trained and armed, and they will defeat the LRA, and when the LRA dies, the Arrow Boys will give back the weapons’,” Western Equatoria governor Joseph Bakosoro told IRIN.

“We would give back the weapons,” he added. “The government doesn’t know our culture, the Zande follow the rules and are loyal to the chiefs, there wouldn’t be any problem.”

Southern Sudan’s government is engaged in disarming civilians across its territory but analysts say in practice the policy has been enforced in an ad-hoc, rather than systematic, manner.

The LRA originated in 1987 in northern Uganda, led by Joseph Kony, who is wanted by the International Criminal Court. It split into small groups after a 2008 joint operation conducted by Ugandan, Southern Sudanese and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) armies.

These groups have since been active in border areas of Southern Sudan, DRC and Central African Republic (CAR). At least 2,000 people have died; 2,600 have been abducted and 400,000 displaced by the rebels in these areas.

There are also fears that the rebels, according to the Small Arms Survey, might be used by the Sudanese government to sabotage the referendum, due on 9 January. This opinion is shared by some local leaders in Western Equatoria.


There are no precise figures for the number of attacks by the LRA in WES. Locals and authorities say from May to October 2010, LRA attacks occurred almost every week. Arrow Boys in Yambio, the state capital, said the LRA increased its attacks in November but Bakosoro said there was only one attack in that month.

In most of the incidents, the attackers stole food and property but did not harm civilians, said the Arrow Boys.

Arrow boys patroling the outskirts of Nzara town in Southern Sudan, looking out for threats of remnants of the LRA and the rivaling Ambororo tribe

“Arrow boys” patrolling the outskirts of Nzara town in Southern Sudan, looking out for threats from remnants of the LRA and the rival Ambororo tribe
Marc Hofer/IRIN
Arrow boys patroling the outskirts of Nzara town in Southern Sudan, looking out for threats of remnants of the LRA and the rivaling Ambororo tribe
Wednesday, December 8, 2010
Agencies call for international action against LRA
Arrow boys patroling the outskirts of Nzara town in Southern Sudan, looking out for threats of remnants of the LRA and the rivaling Ambororo tribe

Photo: Marc Hofer/IRIN
Arrow boys patrol the outskirts of Nzara town, looking out for threats of remnants of the LRA

According to Arrow Boys in the town of Nzara, and Alfred Karaba, the state-level commander of the group, the most recent attack took place on 18 November, when the fighters abducted two girls from Nzara.

Bakosoro arrived in Juba on 9 December to push the government for the SDG5 million (US$2 million) pledged to support the Arrow Boys, he told IRIN by telephone. "We need to find out if those funds are available. The referendum is on the way and we need to strategize so that people can have a peaceful referendum," he said. According to Karaba, there are 6,175 Arrow Boys in WES.

Luka Smith, leader of the Arrow Boys in Yambio, claimed his group captured some LRA fighters last month. “We think they are not planning to attack during the registration but during the voting days," he told IRIN. "If we are not at the registration centres during those days, they will come, kidnap and kill our people."

The Arrow Boys, however, lack adequate resources. They are armed with crude weapons such as pangas, kitchen knives, spears and bows and arrows, and occasionally carry locally manufactured rifles, which can be bought from DRC traders for SDG200 ($80).

Training battle

Disagreements have arisen over how the pledged funds should be spent. Bakosoro said the money should be channelled through the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), but WES authorities say they would prefer to train the Boys themselves.

SPLA spokesman Colonel Philip Aguer said: "The army would definitely not encourage the arming of civilians and I don’t think we would train them. If anything, maybe the police could do it because there should be some control.”

The police, however, said they were ill-equipped. “We don’t have enough resources, we need guns and bullets and more manpower ourselves,” said John Karba, a police officer in Nzara county. “The Arrow Boys are trying their best and are helping the community… but if they are to receive any training, it should be something official from the government because they are not police and not army,” he added.

“The best way to defeat them is we all sit down, the Arrow Boys, the SPLA and the UPDF [Ugandan People’s Defence Forces], and agree on a strategy...” said Angelo Edward, coordinator of the Arrow Boys. “The three of us, we go to the bush together and chase them down and in one or two months the LRA disappears from here.”


This article was produced by IRIN News while it was part of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Please send queries on copyright or liability to the UN. For more information: https://shop.un.org/rights-permissions

Share this article
Join the discussion

Hundreds of thousands of readers trust The New Humanitarian each month for quality journalism that contributes to more effective, accountable, and inclusive ways to improve the lives of people affected by crises.

Our award-winning stories inform policymakers and humanitarians, demand accountability and transparency from those meant to help people in need, and provide a platform for conversation and discussion with and among affected and marginalised people.

We’re able to continue doing this thanks to the support of our donors and readers like you who believe in the power of independent journalism. These contributions help keep our journalism free and accessible to all.

Show your support as we build the future of news media by becoming a member of The New Humanitarian. 

Become a member of The New Humanitarian

Support our journalism and become more involved in our community. Help us deliver informative, accessible, independent journalism that you can trust and provides accountability to the millions of people affected by crises worldwide.